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Introduction: The common name of black flies comes from their typical black color. In various areas some species are called buffalo gnats others turkey gnats. Their pest status comes from the very painful bite of the females.
Recognition: Adults about 1/32"-1/4" (1.2-5.5 mm) long body robust somewhat humpbacked. Color dark usually black or brown but sometimes reddish brown gray yellow or orange.
Habits: The larvae develop only in fast-moving water where they attach to submerged objects Here they feed by filtering the water through special combs which removes nutrients. The pupae also occur in fast-moving water. Upon emergence from the water adults fly off immediately. Both sexes feed on nectar but the female requires a blood meal for egg development.